Riding Habits of the 19th Century

Equestrian Portrait of Mademoiselle Croizette by Carolus-Duran, 1876.

Equestrian Portrait of Mademoiselle Croizette by Carolus-Duran, 1876.

Riding habits of the 19th century were both fashionable and functional.  They were designed to flatter the figure, camouflage the dirt, and withstand the physical rigors of horseback riding.  These basic, practical considerations did not change a great deal from season to season.  As a result, the favored fabrics, cuts, and colors of riding habits at the end of the century were, in general, not hugely dissimilar from those at the beginning.  As an 1842 issue of The Lady’s Companion states:

 “While carriage and walking-dresses are continually changing in fashion, there occurs but little or no variation in the style of riding habits.”

This does not mean that every riding habit was identical.  There were, in fact, significant changes in the placing of the waistline over the century, as well as in the preferred styles for buttons, trims, and hats.  In 1806, La Belle Assemblée decreed that, for the summer, a bonnet with the peak made of straw and the crown made of white silk was “always worn by ladies who indulged in the pleasure of horseback riding.”  As for the rest of the riding costume:

“Nothing is more fashionable for riding on horseback than an ash-coloured habit.  Green, however, is somewhat prevalent; the buttons are either worked or covered with the same as the habit.”

An 1812 edition of The Edinburgh Annual Register describes an elegant habit made of blue cloth and trimmed down each side of the front and on the hips with Spanish Buttons.  A “small woodland hat, whose colour corresponds to the dress,” buff gloves, and half-boots (of either buff jean or leather) complete the picture.

Emma Powles on her Grey Hunter accompanied by her Spaniel in a River Landscape by Jaques-Laurent Agasse , 1767-1849.

Emma Powles on her Grey Hunter accompanied by her Spaniel in a River Landscape
by Jaques-Laurent Agasse , 1767-1849.

The coat, vest, and skirts that comprised the typical riding habit were a striking combination.  They were also a peculiarly masculine one.  So much so that many women preferred to have their riding habits cut by a tailor instead of by the modiste or seamstress who made their gowns.  Elegance and simplicity reigned supreme and any efforts to decorate the riding habit with an excess of feathers or a tasteless display of trim was frowned upon by the fashion magazines.  An excerpt from the 1821 issue of The Dublin Inquisitor says it best:

“Blue riding habit and ostrich feathers! – In the name of taste and fashion, and all that you used to admire, how are you so much perverted?”

The years between 1820 and 1830 saw what one magazine describes as the “ugliest fashions” in riding habits.  Bearing a resemblance to women’s ordinary dress, the habits of that period consisted of long, gathered garments, “monstrous stove pipe” hats, and gauze veils which “fell loosely to the waist in front.”  This was a period of transition into the elegant, more masculine riding habits of the middle and end of the century.  As an article in the 1889 issue of The Women’s World states:

“Here we have the germ from which, in the evolution of fashion, has been developed the completely appropriate costume of today.”  

General Krieg of Hochfelden and his wife on horseback by Marie Ellenrieder, 1832.

General Krieg of Hochfelden and his wife on horseback by Marie Ellenrieder, 1832.

According to The Lady’s Companion, styles in riding habits from the 1830s to the 1840s underwent no material change.  In both decades, the riding habit could be worn “buttoned up to the throat,” “left half open at the chest,” or “thrown entirely open to display a smart and handsome vest.”  Skirts were long, reaching well below the feet.  And as for the color:

“The color of the habit, to be in good taste, should never be light.  A clear blue (royal blue) has always been, and will probably continue to be the favorite color.  It is a well-known fact that George II caused the naval uniform to be changed from scarlet to blue, in consequence of his majesty having admired a splendid blue riding habit, worn by the Duchess of Bedford.”

The color green and the color purple were also worn, but as the magazine declares “neither looks so well as blue.”  This does not stop the beautiful Blanche Ingram from donning a purple riding habit in Charlotte Brontë’s 1847 novel Jane Eyre.  As Brontë writes:

“Her purple riding-habit almost swept the ground, her veil streamed long on the breeze; mingling with its transparent folds, and gleaming through them, shone rich raven ringlets.”

There were, of course, exceptions to the rule.  The Duchess of Rutland, for example, was fond of a sky blue habit with silver buttons, a white hat, and a very high-shirt color.  However, as The Lady’s Companion explains, “her grace was gifted with personal attractions that might excuse any eccentricity.”  In other words, a singularly beautiful lady might be permitted to stray from the preferred colors in riding habits, but for an average mortal, eccentricity was generally discouraged.

Portrait of a Woman as an Amazon, with their Greyhound by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, 1839.

Portrait of a Woman as an Amazon, with their Greyhound by Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller, 1839.

No matter the color, in the mid-century, the collar of the riding habit must be velvet.  The cuffs were often velvet as well.  The vest was usually buff or light blue and “small shirt-collars with some showy color” were considered to be more becoming than even the finest lace.  As for the buttons, The Lady’s Companion states:

“Purple and green habits should be trimmed with stuff buttons; but blue habits should always be ornamented with small gilt buttons, very rich in luster, perfectly plain on the surface, and set closely together in the rows.  These buttons are always worn on the vest, when the bodice is thrown open.”

As a general principle, the habit must have a close bodice, tight sleeves, and a long skirt.  The only variations were in the style of the bodice.  According to The Lady’s Companion, there are three distinct bodice styles:

“First, the military form, (buttoned up to the neck); second, the half-chest, or jacket form; third, the open form with a vest underneath.”

Portrait of Russian actress Vera Samoylova by Eugène Pluchart, 1840.

Portrait of Russian actress Vera Samoylova by Eugène Pluchart, 1840.

Hats were expected to be in good taste.  A neat cap of velvet or cloth equipped with a veil was preferable to a Leghorn or cottage bonnet (which might prove troublesome by flapping about in a high wind).  Gloves were purely practical items, with worsted gloves being superior to those made of kid.  Kid gloves were known to chafe on the reins.

From the date of Queen Victoria’s ascension to the throne to the mid-1860s, The Women’s World magazine states that “low crowned hats with flowing plumes seem to have been almost universally worn.”  Otherwise, the tight bodice and “full, floating habit-skirt” had not altered at all from the style of habit popular in the 1840s.

Meanwhile, elegance and simplicity were still the last word in riding habits well into the 1880s, with an 1887 equestrian manual stating:

“A riding habit should be distinguished by its perfect simplicity.  All attempts at display, such as feathers, ribbons, glaring gilt buttons, and sparkling jet, should be carefully avoided, and the dress should be noticeable only for the fineness of its material and the elegance of its fit.”

By the end of the century, solid, plain cloth riding habits had given way to colored waistcoats and a variety of hats ranging from “the round felt and the soft wide-awake to the jaunty little sailor hat for summer mornings.”  As The Women’s World magazine reports:

“Everything, indeed, tends to a rational form of riding-dress.  Habits are not so short as they were last year, neither is it considered necessary to exhibit an ‘hour-glass’ waist in the saddle, while the form of head-covering is left widely to the fair rider’s taste.”  

The drift toward greater functionality and freedom of personal expression in riding habits was reflective of changing public views, not just of women, but of exercise and athletics.  Accomplished equestriennes were beginning to be appreciated as much for their skill in the saddle as for the cut of their coat.  Of course, an elegant riding habit must always be admired, but as the 19th century drew to a close, no longer could it be said of the female equestrian that “graceful as may be the style of her riding, there is little that is interesting in her appearance unless she is properly attired.”

Scene Dexposition de la Maison Lavigne, 1867.

Scene Dexposition de la Maison Lavigne, 1867.


 Works Referenced or Cited in this Article

Brontë, Charlotte.  Jane Eyre.  Ed. Richard Dunn.  Norton Critical Editions.  3rd ed.  New York: Norton, 2000.

“Fashions for Ladies.”  Edinburgh Annual Register.  Vol. V. Part 2.  Edinburgh: John Ballantyne, 1812.

Fletcher, J. A.  “Equestrian Attire.”  The Columbian Lady’s and Gentlemen’s Magazine.  New York: Israel Post, 1846.

“Fragments of the Correspondence of a Lover.”  The Dublin Inquisitor.  Vol. 1-2.  Dublin: C. P. Archer, 1821.

Karr, Elizabeth.  The American Horsewoman.  Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1884.

La Belle Assemblée. Vol. 1. London: J. Bell, 1806.

La Belle Assemblée. Vol. 5. London: J. Bell, 1812.

“Lady Equestrians.”  The Lady’s Companion.  Vol. XVII.  New York: William Snowden, 1842.

Dixon, Ella Hepworth.  “Women on Horseback.”  The Woman’s World.  London: Cassell and Co., 1889.


© 2015-2017 Mimi Matthews

For exclusive information on upcoming book releases, giveaways, and other special treats, subscribe to Mimi’s Quarterly Newsletter by clicking the link below.

mimis-newsletter-icon-1

You can also connect with Mimi on Facebook and Twitter.


For more 19th Century Fashion, Follow Mimi on Pinterest!

31 thoughts on “Riding Habits of the 19th Century

  1. Sarah Waldock says:

    The length of the skirt of the riding habit is such as to be able to engender plot bunnies; it was much longer than a normal skirt, with a train, and walking elegantly whilst holding this up was something of an art. This was to ensure that all modesty was preserved whilst riding, but was a little awkward when walking to the horse. A heroine tripping over her train is provided with the impediment of embarrassment; or a gentleman who stands on it might either prove to be the hero, who spends the rest of the book making up for this gaffe, or an incidental young idiot, and the hero rescues the heroine from the predicament of a torn skirt by walking behind her until she reaches a ladies’ cloak room where she may make good the damage.
    There are, of course, always plots in nervous horses shying at excessive veils that whip in the wind. Perhaps the heroine has picked a more nervous horse than she can handle, or one which seems placid enough until her vanity causes her to choose fashion over practicality to attract the interest of a gentleman, and ends up attracting the wrong kind!

    Liked by 1 person

    • Mimi Matthews says:

      All great ideas, Sarah! The skirts really sacrificed safety for modesty. There are even incidents of horses catching a hoof in the skirt when cantering or galloping. As if life wasn’t difficult enough for 19th century women and animals!

      Liked by 1 person

      • Sarah Waldock says:

        I hadn’t heard of that, very dangerous!
        The side-saddle may have originated in Italy somewhere in the 15th century; before that women either rode astride, usually merchant’s wives and daughters, or for the hunt, as the previous side saddle was literally sideways; you sat on it with your feet on a platform facing sideways, unable to control the horse, and a lady had to be led. the side saddle with which we are familiar was considered rather daring, and it may or may not have been invented to show off the attractive legs of a courtesan, according to which legend you read, as the skirt pulls tight over the legs, highlighting them a lot more than the conical skirts of the Renaissance did as a general thing…

        Liked by 1 person

      • Mimi Matthews says:

        Interesting! Riding side-saddle seems so counter intuitive as well as profoundly unsafe in so many ways. I had always wondered if it was some barbaric invention for protecting a gently bred lady’s virtue, but your explanation makes sense too.

        Like

      • Nia says:

        Some men would ride bareback side saddle on large draught horses, such as shires, because riding astride is a lot like doing the splits.. And unless you have a divided riding skirt, then your dress ends up being hoiked up around your waist if you try riding astride.

        Liked by 1 person

  2. Sarah M. Fredericks says:

    Dear Mimi,
    Thank you for such an interesting post on ladies’ 19th century habits. I wonder if the lady equestrians found the close bodices and tight sleeves very constricting and hot to wear, especially while galloping through hills and dales following a breathless fox. As for my choice of colour…I would have to choose forest green.
    To your knowledge, did all the female riders ride side saddle?
    Warmest regards
    Sarah
    🍀CopleyClassics.com📚

    Liked by 1 person

    • Mimi Matthews says:

      Thanks, Sarah! Glad you liked it. The coats are not terribly different from riding coats one might wear when competing at a horse show today. They can be warm, but if the cut is good and they fit well, then riding in them is not constricting. There are always some examples in both history & literature of women riding astride. However, it was not the norm and, generally, not considered to be very ladylike!

      Like

  3. Jenny Haddon says:

    That is absolutely fascinating. Riding side saddle must have been agony for any length of time – being in a twisted position from the waist down and having to exert considerable force from your shoulders and arms. And if you fell off, your modesty might be protected but you’d be quite likely to break a limb tumbling and tripping in your long skirt. That’s if it didn’t tangle with your stirrups and drag you along after the horse. Frightful to think of.

    Still, I think the jackets themselves must have been quite comfortable, since the style has survived so long for lady riders, as shown here http://www.rideaway.co.uk/shires-malvern-tweed-jacket-1 .

    While we were looking for prints to brighten up the room for the Georgette Heyer blue plaque tea, Regency novelist Louise Allen produced an Ackerman print from her private collection which I suspect was the model for Sophy’s dashing riding habit (as near to a man’s as was seemly) in The Grand Sophy. I can’t upload it here but it’s the first picture on my blog about the day here http://jennyhaddon.com/?p=987 .

    Liked by 1 person

    • Mimi Matthews says:

      Glad you enjoyed it, Jenny! You’re right, riding coats have changed very little in the last 200+. I have several fitted black ones which even have silver buttons and, if I added a skirt, would not be too different from many of the 19th century paintings. Black beaver hats are still common as well, especially in the dressage show ring. Thanks for the links! I almost mentioned Sophy’s riding habit in the article. One of my favorite descriptions of a habit in literature 🙂

      Like

  4. Vickie says:

    Mimi – I love this! In a world where women were so restricted in almost everything they could do here was an opportunity to look smart and have fun! There is nothing more exhilarating than a gallop!
    Thank you
    Vickie

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Stephen Barker says:

    A couple of points, The Empress Elizabeth of Austria who hunted in the shires in the Nineteenth Century was reputedly stitched into her riding habit so as to achieve a perfect fit.

    In her memoirs entitled ‘Chit Chat’ Lady Augusta Fane attributes the introduction of the Top Hat for ladies in the hunting field to the celebrated courtesan ‘Skittles’ who was a noted horsewoman and leader of fashion. As well as foxhunting she rode in Hyde Park and was one of the class of women known as ‘Pretty Little Horsebreakers’ who were paid to show off horses, fashions and themselves. There is a picture by Dore showing them riding in The Row.

    You did not mention the introduction of the safety skirts in the later in the Nineteenth Century which was designed to prevent a woman being dragged by her skirts in the event of a fall.

    In Leicestershire a few women rode side saddle up to the Second World War. The last lady to do so I think was in the 1950’s was the wife of a man known locally as General Jack who lived in Kibworth, She looks pretty formidable in the photos taken at that time.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Mimi Matthews says:

      Great facts, Stephen. Thanks for the comment. My articles of this sort are generally an overview (as I try not to exceed 2000 words!) and inevitably there are some anecdotes that get missed. Though, I do mention the ‘Pretty Little Horsebreakers’ in one of my articles on Landseer paintings!

      Like

  6. Maggi Andersen says:

    Thanks for the wonderful post, Mimi! I’m writing about a habit and fell upon it with delight! Unfortunately my poor heroine will be wearing one of the horrors of 1823!

    Liked by 1 person

  7. woostersauce2014 says:

    Many thanks for a fascinating article about riding habits and how ostensibly the basic style never changed, in reality there were subtle differences as a nod to the fashions of a particular decade.

    That said it is not surprising that riding side saddle has pretty much gone in the way of the dodo (although I am aware that a few women continue to ride side saddle). It looks very unnatural and uncomfortable and most of all a health and safety risk!!!

    Liked by 1 person

  8. Carol Hedges says:

    In the mid Victorian period, courtesans who rode on a Sunday afternoon in Hyde Park were known as ‘The Pretty Horsebreakers’. Several of them were notorious for wearing nothing under their tight fitting riding habits…thus leaving ”nothing” to the imagination!

    Liked by 1 person

  9. knotrune says:

    Sorry to be replying to such an old post, but as I used to ride side saddle I feel I can shed some light. It is actually very comfortable and safe! The body is not supposed to be askew, just the one leg which crosses the horse’s body, apart from that, you have to sit just as square as riding astride, and keep the opposite shoulder well back (I mean if you have your right leg over to the left, your right shoulder is well back, this is the way most side saddle riders ride these days, but when it was very common, they would alternate so the horse would not get strained, having two different saddles, a left handed and a right handed one)

    With the leaping head, which is the lower pommel of two, to grip with the lower leg, it is a very secure seat, perfectly safe for jumping and bucking. The only problem can be rearing – as the saddle is higher than an astride saddle, it is more likely that the horse become unbalanced and fall over backwards onto the rider, that is the really the only danger, and a horse with a tendency to rear would never become a lady’s saddle horse.

    The seat was so secure in fact, that unscrupulous second hand horse dealers would buy a bad tempered horse with a tendency to buck, ride it for some time in a side saddle (a man rider usually doing this) so the horse learned it could not unseat the rider as it could one who rode astride, then sell it on. Buyer beware! If the buyer was a man and rode it astride it would probably soon revert to its old bad habits!

    Also soldiers returning from war with a leg blown off, especially WWI, would sometimes ride in a side saddle as being better than not being able to ride at all. If they had thighs, even if they lost both legs below the thigh, they could ride this way.

    Liked by 2 people

Comments are closed.